With the advent of small-scale prototype quantum computers, researchers can now code and run quantum algorithms that were previously proposed but not fully implemented. In support of this growing interest in quantum computing experimentation, programmers need new tools and techniques to write and debug QC code. In this work, we implement a range of QC algorithms and programs in order to discover what types of bugs occur and what defenses against those bugs are possible in QC programs. We conduct our study by running small-sized QC programs in QC simulators in order to replicate published results in QC implementations. Where possible, we cross-validate results from programs written in different QC languages for the same problems and inputs. Drawing on this experience, we provide a taxonomy for QC bugs, and we propose QC language features that would aid in writing correct code.
Huang, Yipeng; Martonosi, Margaret